Mineral Luster Color Streak Transparency Hard. Sp. Grav. Form and Breakage Surfaces Other Properties Diagnostic Features Uses
Graphite (1) Metallic Black Black Opaque 1 2.2 Mainly massive with few very small xls. The   Smears hand + paper. Hardness, smears Pencils,
           massive portion of the sample fractures with Feel: smooth, soft, greasy. hands, feel. lubricants,
           rough surfaces. The xls have one perfect Tenacity: sectile. electric industry.
          cleavage plane and fracture with rough Non-magnetic.  
          surfaces in any other direction. The xls look (elements)  
          like flakes.    
Galena (3) Metallic Black Black Opaque 2.5 7.6 Cleavage: very imperfect, three planes Gives off offensive odor Cleavage, luster. An ore of lead.
        perpendicular to each other. No fracture. when in contact with    
        Form: xl. dilute HCl. (sulfur odor)    
          Non-magnetic.    
          (sulphides)    
             
Chalcopyrite (5) Sub- Brass Greenish  Opaque 3.5-4 4.1-4.3 Fracture, uneven. Gives off offensive odor  Color, streak. An ore of copper,
  metallic yellow black     when in contact with   electricity.
          dilute HCl. (sulfur odor)    
          Non-magnetic.    
          Tenacity: brittle.    
          (sulphides)    
             
Pyrite (8) Metallic Brass Black Opaque 6-6.5 5 Form: xl. Fracture: rough surfaces, Gives off offensive odor Looks like gold. Sulfurous gas,
    yellow     conchoidal. when in contact with   an ore of sulfur
          dilute HCl. (sulfur odor)   (sulfuric acid).
          Non-magnetic.    
          (sulphides)    
Corundum (12) Vitreous Brown White Opaque 9 4-4.1 Fracture, uneven or conchoidal. Cleavage Shape: hexagonal. Shape, cleavage, Ruby, sapphire,
      Moh easy. Form: xl. Non-magnetic. (oxides) hardness. abrasive.
                Tenacity: tough.    
Hematite (13) Sub- Reddish Red Opaque 5.0-6 5.2-5.3 Fracture, uneven or conchoidal. Non-magnetic. Streak, color. An ore of iron.
  metallic black       (oxides)    
Limonite (16) Dull Brown Brownish Opaque 5 2.7-4.3 Form: massive. Fracture: rough. No cleavage. Non-magnetic. Streak, color, luster. An ore of iron,
    yellow       (oxides)   paint.
Magnetite (17) Sub- Black Black Opaque 5.5-6.5 5.2 Fracture, uneven. Magnetic. Magnetism. Shape. An ore of iron.
  metallic       Shape: octahedral.  
                (oxides)    
Fluorite (19) Vitreous Black White Translucent 4 3.2 Form: xl. Cleavage: perfect, four cleavage Non-magnetic. Cleavage, shape, Glassware,
      Moh  planes oblique to each other. Shape: octahedral. luster. ceramic, optical
          (Fluorides + chlorides)   instruments.
Halite (20) Vitreous Color- White Translucent 2.5 2.1-2.6 Cleavage: perfect, cubic, easy. Fracture: Taste: salty. Shape: cubic. Shape, cleavage, Salt preservation.
    less         concoidal. Form: xl. Soluble in water. taste.  
                Non-magnetic.    
                (Fluorides + chlorides)    
Calcite (21) Vitreous Color- White Translucent 3 2.7 Form: xl. Cleavage: three planes all oblique to  Double refraction. Reacts Cleavage (if tapped Optical
    less or     Moh   each other, almost perfect. No fracture. with diluted HCl. with hammer,  instruments.
    any           Non-magnetic. perfect cleavage).  
    color           (carbonates) Reacts with HCl.  
Magnesite (22) Sub- Yellow White Opaque 3.5-4.5 3 Form: xl. Cleavage: three planes all oblique to  Powder reacts with Cleavage. Chemical
  vitreous     each other, almost perfect. No fracture. concentrated HCl.   fertilizers.
          Non-magnetic.    
                (carbonates)    
Apatite (38) Vitreous Green White Opaque 5 3.2 Form: xl. Cleavage: imperfect. Shape: hexagonal. Shape. Chemical
      Moh   Non-magnetic.   fertilizers.
                (phosphates)    
Gypsum (40) Vitreous Color- White Translucent 2 2.3 Form: xl. Cleavage: 3 planes(2 oblique(imperfect) Non-magnetic. Hardness. Used in plaster.
    less     Moh   and perp. to other plane(perfect)). No fracture. (sulphates)    
Quartz (24-25) Vitreous Color- White Translucent 7 2.65 Form: xl. No cleavage. Fracture: rough edges Non-magnetic. Shape. Optical
  & sub- less or   Moh and conchoidal. (Nonferromagnesians)   instruments,
  vitreous any        (3-D Network) (silicates)   radio electricity,
    color       Shape: hexagonal.   jewelry, abrasive.
Microcline (26) Vitreous Pink, White Opaque 6 2.55 Form: xl. Cleavage: two cleavage planes at Veins on both cleavage Veins, color (pink). Potassium,
Orthoclase white   Moh  90 degrees, almost perfect. Fracture:  rough  planes. Non-magnetic.   ceramic.
Feldspars or     surfaces in any other direction. (Nonferromagnesians)    
  green       (silicates) (3-D Network)    
Labradorite (27) Vitreous White White Opaque 6-6.5 2.7 Form: xl. Fracture: rough. Cleavage: two Striations on one plane. Striations, color Used as gem.
Plagioclase   or     cleavage planes oblique (86/94). Non-magnetic. (not pink).  
Feldspars   green       (Nonferromagnesians)    
          (silicates) (3-D Network)    
Albite (27A) Vitreous White White Opaque 6-6.5 2.7 Form: xl. Fracture: rough. Cleavage: two Striations on one plane. Striations, color Used as gem.
Plagioclase   or     cleavage planes oblique (86/94). Non-magnetic. (not pink).  
Feldspars   green       (Nonferromagnesians)    
          (silicates) (3-D Network)    
Muscovite (29) Vitreous Color- White Translucent 2.5-3 2.7-3 Form: xl. Cleavage: one perfect plane. Non-magnetic. (silicates) Cleavage, sheets.  
    less     Fracture: rough in any other direction. (Nonferromagnesians)    
           (sheets of tetrahedra)    
          Tenacity: elastic.    
Biotite (30) Vitreous Brown White Translucent 2.5-3 2.7-2.8 Form: xl. Cleavage: one perfect plane. Non-magnetic. (silicates) Cleavage, sheets. Insulation,
        Fracture: rough in any other direction. (Ferromagnesians)   electricity.
           (sheets of tetrahedra)    
                Tenacity: elastic.    
Pyroxene (32) Sub- Green White Opaque 5.0-7 2.8-3.7 Form: xl. Cleavage: perfect, two planes at Non-magnetic. Cleavage.  
  metallic     right angles. (Ferromagnesians)    
                (singe chain) (silicates)    
Amphibole (34) Vitreous Black Green Opaque 4-6.5 2.9-3.5 Form: xl. Cleavage: very difficult, very Non-magnetic. Cleavage.  
        imperfect, oblique (124/56) (60/120). (Ferromagnesians)    
              Fracture: rough. (double chain) (silicates)    
Tourmaline (36) Vitreous Black Black Opaque 7-7.5 2.9-3.2 Fracture: uneven or conchoidal. Non-magnetic. (silicates) Shape.  
Garnet (37) Vitreous Brown White Opaque 6.5-7.5 3.5-4.3 Form: xl. Fracture: imperfect. Non-magnetic. (silicates) Shape, color.